Freedom of Information Requests in Canada: How to & Examples

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Updated August 24, 2023

Canada’s Freedom of Information (FOI) Acts (also called the Access to Information (ATI) Act federally and “Right to Information” in some jurisdictions) give Canadian citizens and permanent residents right to access records held by Canadian governments and public institutions at the federal, provincial and municipal levels.

An FOI request is a written request to a public institution for information they have that has not been publicly released. A request must be submitted with an application fee ranging from $5 to $25 depending on the jurisdiction.

These requests are used by citizens, academics, businesses, journalists, and even politicians themselves to understand what the government is doing.

Here’s how they work, examples of records you can access for inspiration and how you can file one yourself:

What is the purpose of FOI laws?

FOI laws exist because access to information is vital to democracy.

The purpose of FOI laws is to promote an open and democratic society by increasing the transparency and accountability of government and public institutions, enabling objective evaluation and public debate on the actions, conduct and results of those institutions. This creates informs voters, who can more effectively participate when they know and understand what the government is actually doing.

FOI requests can find out how:

  • Tax dollars are being spent
  • Efficiently and appropriately government agencies and officials are performing
  • Decisions are being made and how they arrive at those decisions

In 1946, shortly after the Second World War, a resolution was passed at the first ever United Nations General Assembly in response to the lack of information caused by propaganda and censorship being partly to blame for the global conflict.

It stated:

“Freedom of Information is a fundamental human right and is the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated.”

The United States put this sentiment into practice with its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 20 years later in 1966. It was in part a response to insiders leaking documents marked “confidential” and with the intention of making US government agencies more transparent so the public could more easily identify problems in government functioning and put pressure on elected officials to address them. It was strengthened in 1974 after the Watergate scandal.

Canada’s federal Access to Information Act (ATIA) became law on Canada Day 1983 under the Pierre Trudeau government and was the 13th country in the world to have modern ATI laws. The first provincial FOI legislation was passed by Nova Scotia in 1977, followed by several other provinces and the federal government in the 1980s. PEI was the final province in 2002.

These fundamental rights are so important that the Supreme Court of Canada has interpreted them as quasi-constitutional in nature – almost as important as the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

What are the benefits of FOI laws?

FOI laws can:

  • Make government and public bodies more transparent and accountable for their actions
  • Enhance government efficiency and responsiveness to the public
  • Encourage civic engagement and participation
  • Increase trust and confidence in the government and democracy
  • Help identify and eliminate corruption

Freedom of (Access to) Information Acts in Canada

Each province, territory and the federal government has its own FOI legislation. Some provinces have separate legislation covering their municipalities, while in those that don’t, municipalities are governed by the provincial legislation.

FederalAccess to Information Act (ATIA)Make a request
AlbertaFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIP) ActMake a request
British ColumbiaFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FOIPPA) Make a request
ManitobaFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA) (2021 amendments)Make a request
New BrunswickRight to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (RTIPPA)Make a request
Newfoundland and LabradorAccess to Information and Protection of Privacy (ATIPP) ActMake a request
Northwest TerritoriesAccess to Information and Protection of Privacy (ATIPP) ActMake a request
Nova ScotiaFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPOP) ActMake a requestMGA
NunavutAccess to Information and Protection of Privacy ActMake a request
OntarioFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy ActMake a requestMFIPPA
Prince Edward IslandFreedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) ActMake a request
QuebecAct respecting Access to documents held by public bodies and the Protection of personal informationMake a request
SaskatchewanThe Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIP) ActMake a requestLA FOIP
YukonAccess to Information and Protection of Privacy (ATIPP) ActMake a request

See: How FOI fees, rules and processes vary by jurisdiction – Secret Canada

What institutions can you request information from?

Most public bodies in Canada are subject to FOI laws and if an institution is funded by tax dollars or controlled by the government, it is probably is too.


Around 260 federal institutions, including:


Institutions include:

  • Government ministries and institutions
  • Provincial police
  • Municipal or regional police services (for example, local detachment, division number) 
  • Most public agencies, boards, commissions and advisory bodies
  • School boards, colleges and universities
  • Public hospitals
  • Some publicly funded institutions (for example, museums, libraries)

In Ontario, the directory of institutions lists the institutions you can request information from and includes contact information for the Freedom of Information and Privacy Coordinator or municipal clerk who can provide assistance and the address to send a request to.

There is also a list of Freedom of Information and Privacy Coordinators for Ministries of Ontario that includes email addresses and phone numbers.

Coordinators are responsible for the administration of the Act, including:

  • receive and process submitted FOI requests
  • tell you what information is held by their institution
  • let you know if you can get the information without making a formal FOI request
  • review records held by their institution
  • determine if you can access the records requested under FIPPA or MFIPPA

For more: Public institutions we track – Secret Canada

What information can you request?

The principle of freedom of information laws is “Open by Default“, meaning all information held by government institutions is available to the public by default, unless it falls under one of a limited number of specific exceptions where it needs to stay private to protect privacy, confidentiality and security.

The federal government’s Open Government directive is also based on this principle, which requires government departments and agencies to proactively publish the maximum amount of government data and information eligible publicly and in accessible and reusable formats (Open Data) on the Open Government Portal.

There are generally two categories of information that you can request:

  • Personal information requests access or correct the information an institution has about you. It can be made by you or another person acting on your behalf such as a lawyer. The directory of personal information banks (PIBs) lists the collections of personal information held by public institutions. It includes the types of information maintained (name, address, phone, email, background, etc.), retention period and how it’s used.
  • General information requests covers all other requests. The directory of records lists the types of records held by ministries and some provincial agencies. Not all of which is available through FOI, but it can give you an idea of the kinds of information the government keeps records of.

Federal and provincial

Any information used to document, support or direct government decision-making, policy development, activities or operations is captured by the retention and final disposition schedule outlined in the Inquiries Act.

Frequently requested records include:

  • Databases most often come in the form of a spreadsheet or CSV and are used to keep track of almost everything from project progress, historical data and online form submissions including applications and inquiries.

    Before making a request, try to find the name of the database and what fields or columns hold the data you’re looking for. If unsuccessful, be very specific when describing the type of information you’re after and ask the FOI office to help you. When in doubt, request an export of the database from the date it was created, as it shouldn’t take them much longer to produce.
  • Correspondence including e-mails, texts, letters, phone logs and chat messages can illustrate the timeline of the discussions and reasoning that lead to a decision being made. These requests can take a lot of time and generate a large amount of records, so consider limiting the scope to correspondence either sent or received by a particular office or official over at 3-4 month period at most. You can always file another FOI after for other recipients or time periods if the first is successful.

    Global News obtained a FOI request and filed another, requesting Premier Doug Ford’s phone bills showing incoming and outgoing phone calls to his government-issued and personal devices, respectively, which have suggested he was using his personal phone for government work, which is against the Ontario Public Service guidebook.
  • Expense reports indicating how elected officials and public servants are spending taxpayer money on travel, meals, accommodations, remunerations, etc. You can request for a specific person, or more generally eg. “staff in the mayor’s office”.
  • Inspection reports produced as part of the investigation into an incident or as part of a routine assessment regarding workplace safety, fires, food safety, sewer backups, property inspections, building permits, etc. They typically include the relevant facts, an assessment of the situation and recommended next steps.
  • Bidding process or contracts including the bids, proposals, assessments and agreements between the government and private companies as they go through the “procurement” process to spend of taxpayer money on goods (helicopter parts, office chairs, etc.) and services (consulting, engineering, etc.). The Government of Canada alone spends $22 billion on goods and services annually.

    Before submitting a request, find the contract or solicitation number of the request for proposals (RFP). Federal organizations use CanadaBuys while provinces often use MERX. Other platforms include Biddingo and Bids and Tenders or search for “[institution] procurement”.
  • Briefing notes are high-level, concise and to-the-point memos that policy analysts and other government staff members send to senior government officials. They summarize an issue, topic or meeting either for informational purposes to keep them up-to-date, or to request a decision. The following sections are typically included: Purpose, Background, Discussion/Analysis, Options, Recommendation and Next Steps.

    Before making a request, you’ll want to find the title or reference number of the briefing note. The federal government makes briefing note titles available online, but most jurisdictions don’t provide them, so you’ll have to make a FOI request for a list of briefing note titles first.
  • Police reports including your involvement as an accused, witness or complainant. They can only be requested once an investigation is complete and you’ll only receive records about yourself.
  • FOI about FOI is not as common, but a meta-request can reveal the behind-the-scenes conversations that occurred in response to your FOI request. It can be very informative when used on FOI requests that didn’t go the way you expected it to and you want to understand where things went wrong.
  • Court records


MFIPPA requires municipalities to keep an updated Personal Information Bank and to make it available for the public to view. For example, see Durham Region’s Directory of Records and Personal Information Banks (PIBs).

Frequently requested records include:

  • Property records, such as building records, plans and permits (available to the property owner or their legal representative)
  • Fire incident reports
  • City planning development and committee of adjustment records (Planning Act)
  • Ambulance call reports (records are made available to the patient or their legal representative)
  • Court records
  • Environmental records, such as notices of violation, soil and groundwater analyses results


Records can come in a variety of formats, including:

  • Correspondence (e-mails, texts, letters, chat messages, etc.)
  • Databases (spreadsheets, Access, SQL or CSV file format, not PDF)
  • Videos
  • Reports (PDFs)
  • PowerPoint presentations

Re-request past FOI requests

Records produced by past federal FOI requests are available for free on the online portal. All you have to do to get a copy for yourself is fill out form with your contact information and agree to their privacy notice.

Many institutions publish the titles and summaries of completed FOI requests online or their website or Open Data portal which you can use to request a copy of your own by submitting a “piggyback” request. An application fee may be charged if the submission is interpreted as a new request.

What information can’t be requested?

Some information must be kept confidential to protect privacy rights, national security and cabinet confidence.

The exceptions that prevent the disclosure of information to the right of access are limited and specific, and include that, or that which would affect:

  • Law enforcement investigations
  • Health or safety of an individual
  • Trade secrets of the government or business
  • Obtained from governments in confidence
  • Personal information about individuals other than the requester
  • Cabinet discussions and deliberations that are less than 20 years old (“Cabinet confidence” allows ministers to freely consider and discuss all options and opinions without fear of retribution or embarrasment)

See also: Ontario’s exemptions which includes if requests are frivolous (no purpose or value) or vexatious (intending to annoy)

Note: The FOI system cannot be used to ask questions. Instead of asking “How many affordable housing units did the city fund in 2022?”, make a request: “I am seeking access to the database tracking funds for city’s affordable housing program.”

What are some examples of FOI requests?

Secret Canada, a project by The Globe and Mail, is an online database of over 320,000 FOI summaries for requests filed from April, 2010, to March, 2023 from across all jurisdictions and levels of government. Their website is the best source of advice, inspiration and guidance for filing FOI requests.

They also have a list of stories they’ve published using information from FOI requests and the reporters held a Reddit AMA Q&A which is a great read. You can get updates about the project by subscribing to the newsletter.

Past FOI requests are published online by the federal government, as well as some provinces and municipalities on their Open Data portals:

These requests can be used for:

  • Inspiration – See what information fellow Canadians are requesting from their governments, police and schools for inspiration
  • Learning – How to write and file a request to a particular institution or for a certain type of record
  • Access records released in previous requests by filing a “piggyback request”
  • See responses to completed FOI requests

Here are some examples to give you an idea of the records that can be requested:


  • Charity donations – List by name and dollar amount of all gifts provided by the Schulich Foundation to other charities and qualified donees from 2000 to 2021. (CRA)
  • Briefing notes – Briefing Note 03836-2021: Deputy Minister of International Trade virtual meeting with Invest in Canada.
  • Memos – Fisheries and Oceans Canada – Memo to the Deputy Minister: Meeting with British Columbia Seafood Alliance (Reference # 2022-009-00020)
  • Government spending – “Co-Investment Fund Initiative”: For Ontario and British Colombia – information related to the actual amounts funded under this program since inception. Details to include all of the following: All organization names that have resulted in a signed commitment to date; Who were the recipients of the loans (name please); Total number of recipients; Where are the recipients located (address); Amount to each recipient and date issued. Loan terms (%interest duration); Totals of applicants broken down by type of applicant (i.e. individual, small business, large business, etc…) for the Co-Investment fund as well as all related contracts signed under this agreement.
  • Government spending 2 – Any briefing notes, memos, or reports that include an analysis of the effectiveness of money spent by the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario. This analysis could include, but would not be limited to, how many jobs are created by companies the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario invests in, how much regional economies have grown as a result of the investments and/or how much Canada’s GDP has increased as a result of the investments.
  • Salaries and compensation – Number of employees who have received pay increases since 2020 (Canadian Air Transport Security Authority)
  • Pension investments – List of every Canadian property owned by PSP in the Housing-Residential sector including: address, name (if applicable), ownership stake in the property (e.g. as a percentage), and known partners. (Public Sector Pension Investment Board)


  • Licenses and registrations – Please provide the total number of registered electric vehicles in the province as of May 12, 2022.
  • Minister’s briefing notes – A list of briefing materials prepared for the deputy minister or the minister for the month of March 2022.
  • Meeting minutes – All meeting minutes and documentation arising from meetings of the Panel on Housing.
  • Statistics – # of people on waitlist for long-term care – monthly and broken down by region.


  • Inspections – Inspection records for Kingston Municipal Non-profit Housing Corporation (Town Homes Kingston) for the past four years documenting what was inspected, when it was inspected, by whom it was inspected, and any conclusions reached after inspection re: compliance
  • OW/ODSP files – Ontario Works file from 2014 to present
  • Property standards – Record of all complaints and information on [Address] and any fines and notices that were issued
  • Asset locations – List of types of benches available for use by the municipality, map of all bench placements in Kingston, all documents regarding selection of public bench styles and placements January 1, 2015 to November 30, 2018
  • Tickets and fines – A database of all automated speed enforcement tickets, taken from July 1, 2020 to July 12, 2021, including location, speed, fine amount, license plate, paid or unpaid, time of day and date for each ticket.

How much does an FOI request cost?

Application fee

A FOI application costs $5 to $25 depending on the jurisdiction.

It costs $5 to submit an FOI request federally, to the Government of Ontario and the municipalities of the City of Toronto and the City of Belleville. The fee is mandatory and non-refundable when charged, but federal bodies can choose not to charge a fee as the Canada School of Public Service does.

Most institutions require payment in the form of a cheque or money order submitted by mail along with the request itself. A small minority will accept credit card payments online. Cash typically isn’t accepted through the mail, but there is often an option to pay in-person with cash, debit, credit card or cheque.

Preparation fees

The federal government got rid of all fees other than the $5 application fee in 2019 by passing Bill C-58.

In Ontario, the preparation fee charged by provincial and municipal bodies is $30 to $60 per hour depending on the tasks required (charged in 15 minute increments) plus $0.20 per page of copies/printouts and shipping. However, the fee must be waived if it is fair and equitable to do so if it didn’t require much time or cost to prepare.

Search time$7.50 per 15 minutes
Record preparation$7.50 per 15 minutes, 2 min per page
Photocopying$0.20 per page
Computer programming$15 per 15 minutes if needed
Floppy disks$10 per disk
Shipping costsActual cost of shipping

You will receive a fee estimate from the FOI office or institution where you submitted your FOI request, if the processing fees will be more than $25. When processing fees are over $100, a deposit may be required.

Important Note: You have the right to request a waiver of fees if the the total charges incurred for preparing the records will cause financial hardship or if the information will benefit public health or safety. For more information, refer to the IPC’s guide to Fees, Fee Estimates and Fee Waivers.

Appeal fee

In Ontario, the fee to appeal a decision is $10 for personal information requests and $25 for general information requests for both provincial and municipal institutions.

How to file a FOI request?

To submit an FOI request:

1. Check if the information is already publicly available

First, check to see if the information has already been published on the institution’s website or an Open Data Portal.

If the institution or jurisdiction publishes completed FOI requests, check to see if the information you’re looking for has already be requested by someone else. Re-requesting existing records is faster and cheaper than filing a new request.

You might be able to find specific document names or IDs in personal information banks (PIBs), directories of records, meeting minutes, studies, annual reports, etc.

If you aren’t sure what records exist, try calling the institution and speaking to the FOI coordinator. They are required to assist the public, and most are happy to.

If that doesn’t work, you may have to file an initial FOI request for a list of document titles and descriptions first.

2. Write the request

Write a detailed description of the records or information requested and be as specific as possible. You can reduce preparation fees and turnaround times by making it easier for the institution to find and gather the necessary information.

Include the following:

  • A brief description of the context of your request
  • Your name, email address and phone number

Here are details to include (if you know them) to identify the exact documents that have the information you’re looking for:

  • Document identification – name, title, reference/ID number and/or file type
  • Time period – start and end dates, 1 month, 1 year, etc.
  • Received by, or sent by an individual or public body
  • Location – neighborhood, zip code, intersection, address
  • Name – Institution, office, department, unit, individual or more generally eg. “staff in the mayor’s office”
  • Structure – rows and columns of a spreadsheet
  • Formats and media such as:
    • Paper records (for example, letters, reports, plans, drawings, microfilm)
    • Electronic records (for example, emails, PDFs, slide decks, spreadsheets)
    • Multimedia records (for example, film, voice recordings, photographs)

Including the statement I would like this information sent electronically will reduce the time it takes them to process the request and reduce preparation fees by avoiding the printing or photocopying of documents. If you don’t include it, you may receive completely unusable paper print outs of a spreadsheet as I did:

Assume the person receiving the request has no idea what you’re talking about and will give you the absolute minimum amount of information that your specifications allow for and design your request accordingly. And in my experience, expect to get about 80% of what you asked for, anyway after redactions.

Note: Before submitting a formal request for information, it is recommended to try contacting the relevant institution directly to ask for the information and any further details or direction they may be able to provide. If access is denied, or not as you expected, make a written request under the Act.

See also: Guide to FOI by Secret Canada

3. Submit the request to the institution

An increasing number of jurisdictions accept online submissions including federally and provincially in Ontario, but many still require you to mail them a physical copy of your request along with a cheque.

For those, you will have to gather the following information:

  • How much is the application fee? Varies.
  • Who should the cheque be made out to? Typically the name of the entity.
  • What address should the application and payment be mailed to? Typically the address of the entity.
  • Who should the envelope me addressed to? This works in most cases: “Attention: Freedom of Information/Access to Information Coordinator.”

4. Institution responds

An institution is required to respond within 30 days calendar of receiving the request, however, in practice, many have backlogs.

5. File an appeal

If you are denied access or disagree with an institution’s decision regarding their requests, you have 30 days to appeal the decision with the IPC after the notice of decision is given (Section 20(8)), which is the date you actually receive the FOI decision/response – not the date on the response letter as claimed in this decision letter I received from the City of Belleville:

See also: Ontario’s Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Manual

FOI letter templates

Note: If you request “any or all information,” all departments must initiate a search of all records under their control. When every department is involved in a search for records. This can increase the cost, but provides the most comprehensive search.

FOI request for general information

To whom it may concern,

This is a request under this jurisdiction’s freedom of information legislation for records held by [institution].

I request the all information associated with [name of program/public servant] between [start date] and [end date] including, but not limited to, the tracking document(s) for each and every [project], including all of the following information, for each project:

Municipal Address of Property
Application Date
Application Complete Date
Payment Issued Date

Please provide a machine-readable, itemized database, spreadsheet or dump/export (e.g. Microsoft Excel, Access, SQL or CSV file format, not PDF).

I would like this information sent electronically and that the “original electronic versions” of records are disclosed, if available.

John Smith
123 Example St
City, Province, Postal Code
Phone number, Email address

FOI request for personal information

To whom it may concern,

This is a request under this jurisdiction’s freedom of information legislation for records held by [institution].

Please identify and provide access to inspect and correct all of my personal information records which I have not previously requested.

Please identify and provide all S34 [section 34 of the Act] Personal Information Bank index or records relating to my personal information records which I have not previously requested.

I would like this information sent electronically and that the “original electronic versions” of records are disclosed, if available.

John Smith
123 Example St
City, Province, Postal Code
Phone number, Email address

How to appeal a decision?

You can appeal a decision by completing an online appeal form (Ontario), or mailing in the following documents:

  1. Completed appeal form
  2. The file number of the request (eg. FOI 2023-14)
  3. Copy of your original request
  4. Copy of the decision letter
  5. Cheque or money order in the amount of $10 (for personal information) or $25.00 (for general records) payable to the Minister of Finance.

To the following address:

Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario (IPC)
Information and Privacy Commissioner
2 Bloor Street East, Suite 1400, Toronto ON M4W 1A8

See: The Appeal Process and Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner – IPC

What happens after the appeal?

After an appeal I filed in Ontario was denied in June 2023, I was told the timeline for the next step – adjudication would take 1 to 2 years.

Why does an FOI request take so long?

Unfortunately, in practice, many federal agencies and departments have growing backlogs of ATI requests and an audit by The Globe and Mail found that institutions are regularly missing their statutory deadlines, overusing redactions and failing to conduct proper searches. And it has become routine for agencies to invoke exemptions to withhold information.

The Province of Ontario explicitly states they may not be able to follow the law:

Ontario FOI notice

These delays are still being blamed on the pandemic. In a June 2023 email from staff member at the IPC of Ontario, I was notified that “there will be delays in the assignment of a staff member to begin work on this file as we address a backlog of appeals and complaints resulting from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the IPC’s operations”

In her latest report to Parliament, Information Commissioner of Canada Caroline Maynard said the pandemic “can no longer be used as an excuse for not living up to legislative obligations.”

Government agencies have been farming out request processing to outside staffing firms to assist with the backlogs.

To me it’s a sign that the feds still don’t see this as a right, that it’s peripheral to their core mandate. And if they feel that the way out of this is contracting out, then contract out with enough intentionality and enough resources to deal with these backlogs because this is core to democratic functioning.

Lisa Taylor, an associate professor of journalism at Toronto Metropolitan University and a former lawyer

How can FOI systems be improved?

One of the issues is that there’s no incentive for departments to obey the law and little penalty for those that don’t comply with the rules as Privacy Commissions rarely apply any consequences.

Here are some ways in which the system could be improved:

  • Requiring an Open Government approach – Systematically and proactively disclose the vast majority of records through Open Data systems, reducing the administrative cost and burden associated with responding to inquiries. For example, access requests to the City of Toronto dropped by 50% after its implementation of proactive disclosure.
  • Declassification – Canada is the only NATO country that does not have a comprehensive framework for declassification and researchers must use FOI requests to get historical records. The UK reviews and releases records once they are 20 years old, while in the US declassification review is automatic at 25 years (9 exceptions), 50 years (2 exceptions), and special permission is required to keep a document classified after 75 years.

    Accessing files from WWI should not be the same process as accessing a month-old briefing note and similar measures could save the federal government time, money and embarrassment. For more, see A Declassification strategy for national security and intelligence records – IPC
  • Increased funding – Most Commissioners say they need more resources (money, staff). If resources are the problem, then investments must be made so that the law is followed. The “we can’t comply with the law because it’s expensive” defense doesn’t work so well in court.
  • Penalize non-compliance – Better tracking of noncompliance and having a better name-and-shame/accountability system.
  • Incentivize compliance – For example, by tying senior bureaucrats’ bonuses to FOI performance.
  • Reviewing its performance – A review of the ATIA in 2016 resulted in the passing Bill C-58 in June 2019 included the following updates:
    • ATIA must be reviewed every 5 years by Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS). Its first comprehensive review of the ATIA – Access to Information Review Report – was published in 2022.
    • Information Commissioner the power to make binding orders, including forcing the government to disclose records
    • Requiring institutions to proactively publish information known to be of interest to the public commonly requested under ATIA
  • Better training – Many FOI professionals report not receiving formal training on FOI before starting their job and there seem to only be a few FOI training courses available in Canada (BC, AB).

Who enforces FOI laws?

FOI laws are overseen and enforced by Information Commissioners. Federally, this is the Information Commissioner of Canada, and each province has their own commissioner. In Ontario, it’s the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario.


Share your FOI story

We’re interested to know – what information are you requesting and from what institution? Was the information they provided what you were looking for? Let us know in the comments below!

The folks at Secret Canada would probably like to hear from you too, so be sure to send it to them too:

About the author

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Alex Wideman
Alex Wideman is a consumer rights advocate, serial entrepreneur and the editor-in-chief of Cansumer. He has a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Queen's University. He is passionate about helping others save time and money and has been creating consumer-focused online resources for over 10 years. More about Cansumer Read more

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